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There is currently no way to power the world without fossil fuels, until major technological breakthroughs happen.
We have to consume less - this is not as hard as it sounds.

This page is about energy in 2 main forms: fuel and electricity.

Energy supply

The majority of energy comes from fossil fuels, which are the main cause of climate change.

Energy sources

What about other energy sources?

Energy Source
Main Limitation
Hydro Geography
Nuclear Needs uranium-235 which is too scarce*
Solar Too many rare metals needed*
Wind Geography
Biofuel Causes deforestation and global hunger
Waste Limited supply
Geothermal Geography. In most parts of the world, it's only suited for heating and cooling.

Solar and wind are also limited by energy storage.*

*Limitations marked with an asterisk (*) are possible to overcome with the right innovations.

More details are found on the wikipage of each energy source. Links are in the table.

Energy demand

What is energy mainly used for? Here are some basic categories:
Energy usesNote:(...)( You can disregard the rightmost section "non-energy use of fuels". It's there only because of the datasets used in making the graphic. )

Most of the world is currently living in poverty. Suppose every country was as developed as western countries: Global energy demand could be more than double:

Energy demand if everyone lived a first-world lifestyle

This is far beyond today's green energy capacity.

Transportation sector

Energy demand would be different if vehicles didn't run on gasoline or diesel. In general, we'd need less energy to power the vehicles but more energy to manufacture them (and later recycle them at their end of life). Overall, total energy demand would be slightly less. See this chart.

There are currently some serious roadblocks to making this happen. Read the page on electric vehicles to see how they could maybe be overcome.

It's quite possible that there's no good solution for electric vehicles, and the only way to make transportation sustainable is for people to drive less. This goes against suburban culture, but it isn't as hard as it sounds:

Reducing energy demand

Note: These actions are mostly targeted at "first-world" countries.
In other parts of the world, consumption doesn't necessarily have to be reduced.


Some things that would help:

  • Walkability - organizing neighborhoods so things are in optimal locations, so people don't have to drive as far as often.
  • Public transit done right. Yes, there are plenty of ways for it to be done wrong!
  • Working from home - only suited for some types of work, of course.
  • Carpooling - yes, this takes some effort and coordination.


Most energy is used for heating - or in some warmer parts of the world, cooling. Energy-saving solutions haven't been added to this wiki yet.[RESEARCH needed]

A common misconception is that "saving energy" is all about turning off lights, turning off computers, etc. Those actions are worthwhile but don't actually make a big difference. Other personal lifestyle choices do:


More than half of energy demand(...)( commercial vehicles + industrial/manufacturing + some commercial spaces ) is affected by what people buy, and how much of it.

To deal with this piece of the pie, we need: